April 7, 2020

Good afternoon 

I'm reaching out because the middle schoolers in the environmental club I work with wanted to let you know how helpful the Forest City stormwater page  was to us! We've been doing meetings remotely. The kids have been working on a project about Earth's natural resources, and when one of the girls in my group (Ann-Marie) was doing research for the water section of her project she found your page... It was a great find because she was able to get some wonderful info - especially from the Stormwater PA site - and thought you would appreciate hearing it.  It feels like the right time to express gratitude & put some positivity out into the world!

Part of the project is about the water cycle, and Ann-Marie also wanted to pass on this glossary page here. It has definitions (we used it to make flash cards!) and Ann-Marie had the idea that we could include this in our thank-you note as our way of repaying the favor! She thought it would be a useful information for you to add to your stormwater page, for other kids & students who find it.. hopefully it's helpful!

Lisa Garcia (and Ann-Marie S.)

Water Cycle Glossary of Terms - The water supply of Earth is a required element for life to exist and thrive. The water cycle is a continuous cycle that keeps water moving on and around Earth in different forms. The different stages of the water cycle include evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and collection. Each stage of the cycle leads to the next stage, and each stage is an important part of a process that helps to water plants, fill cisterns, dry up puddles, and remove floodwaters.Aquifer: An aquifer is an underground layer that contains groundwater.Atmosphere: A unit of atmosphere measures the air pressure at sea level, which is about 14.7 pounds per square inch.Climate: The climate of a location includes all of the weather conditions for this location over an extended period of time.Cloud: A cloud is a visible mass of small water droplets or tiny ice crystals that are suspended in the atmosphere.Cloud Condensation Nuclei: Water vapor surrounds tiny particles, condensing in clouds to become raindrops.Condensation: Condensation is the process by which water vapor changes into liquid.Current: Currents are predictable and steady flows of fluid in a larger body of fluid.Density: Density describes the amount of things in a specific space.Dew Point: Dew point is the temperature at which water in the air condenses to become water droplets near the ground.Ecosystem: An ecosystem is a community of living and nonliving things in an area.Erosion: Erosion happens when soil is worn away, usually by wind, water, or ice.Evaporation: Evaporation is the process of water changing into water vapor. Evapotranspiration: When moisture from the soil evaporates into the atmosphere or when transpiration from plants occurs, this is called evapotranspiration. Fog: Clouds near the ground are known as fog.Freshwater: A lake, river, or spring is a source of freshwater, which animals can drink.Glacier: A glacier is a mass of ice that moves slowly across a land mass. Great Lakes: The Great Lakes are the biggest freshwater bodies of water in the world, located in the United States. Greenhouse Gas: Gases in the atmosphere that absorb solar heat reflected by Earth's surface, contributing to warming of the atmosphere, are greenhouse gases. Groundwater: Groundwater is water found in an aquifer.Humidity: The amount of water vapor in the air is the humidity.Ice: Ice is water in solid form.Ice Cap: An ice cap is an area of less than 19,000 square miles covered by ice.Ice Sheet: Ice sheets are glacial ice areas that cover a large expanse.Lake: A lake is a body of water that is surrounded by land.Microscopic: Microscopic describes something very small.Pollutant: A pollutant is a substance that harms a natural resource.Precipitation: Precipitation includes all types of water that fall to Earth.River: A river is a big stream of fresh water that flows. Runoff: When fluid overflows from a farm or factory, it's known as runoff. Snowmelt: Melted water from snow is snowmelt. Temperature: The level of heat or cold, measured by a thermometer, is temperature.Transpiration: Water that evaporates from plants is transpiration.Vapor: Vapor is liquid that is suspended in air. Water Cycle: Water moves between the land, bodies of water, and atmosphere in a process known as the water cycle. Weather: Weather describes the state of the atmosphere, and it includes atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, and wind.Wind: Wind is air that moves from areas of high pressure to low-pressure zones.    Learn More About Water! 


Learn More

  What Is the Water Cycle? The water cycle is the path water takes as it moves around on Earth.The Water Cycle: Water never stops moving between land, bodies of water, and the air.Learn About the Water Cycle: The sun helps to power the water cycle by causing evaporation.Overview of the Water Cycle: The water cycle has no beginning and no end.The Water Cycle: Earth only has a specific amount of water, and the water cycles continuously through stages such as evaporation, precipitation, and collection.The Fundamentals of the Water Cycle: The water on Earth is always moving from one place and form to another.The Water Cycle: As the sun shines, it turns water into a vapor that rises and eventually gathers as clouds.Water Cycle Information: Without the water cycle occurring all the time, there couldn't be life on Earth.The Water Cycle: Watch this video to learn how energy from the sun makes water move and change form in the water cycle.Water Cycle: An Easy Explanation for Kids: The water cycle provides fresh water to plants and animals in a repeating process.100 Ways to Conserve Water: Learn all the ways you can help to conserve water! 




An entire suite of stormwater best management practices (BMPs) have been developed, techniques that range from preserving natural systems and minimizing disturbances to alleviating unavoidable impacts when they do occur through various “structural” means. An ounce of prevention truly is worth a pound of cure when it comes to stormwater management—and prevention comes from planning ahead.Type your paragraph here.

(click below to go to Stormwater PA)


KBA Engineering link

Check out KBA's link below for more important information about Stormwater.

​Click below



Most municipalities have catch basins on or along their municipal roads. The stormwater collected by these catch basins is then conveyed by pipes and swales to a retention pond or body of water. This system conveys stormwater runoff and is separate from the sanitary sewer system. These stormwater facilities are referred to as Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4).

Why should we care about stormwater? It has always rained, and the rain has always gone down the street into the catch basin and disappeared. However, in most cases it didn't disappear. It flowed into the Lackawanna River, then into the Susquehanna River, and then to the Chesapeake Bay. So what? You might ask! Isn't that what is supposed to happen? Well actually, more than stormwater flowed into the rivers and the bay. Whatever was on the street or in your driveway: oil, dog feces, salt, dirt, chemicals, etc. was carried down the drain. These things, along with a lot of others, such as mine acid, fertilizer, and general debris have a negative impact on our waterways. They affect aquatic life, drinking water, fishing, swimming, and the enjoyment of the water itself. We know we can't keep all of these pollutants out of water, but we can reduce them. And we can make others aware that they can help also. Rain gardens, rain barrels, storm sewer stenciling, street sweeping, and so many more things can improve the quality of the water that flows to our rivers.We often think water is everywhere and always will be... maybe so, but can we be sure?

Or should we do a small part to protect our waterways now!

For more information, visit the PADEP web page at or contact KBA Engineering, pc at 570-876-5744


The federal Clean Water Act (CWA) prohibits the discharge of pollutants into waterways without the appropriate permits. Pennsylvania’s Stormwater Management Act (better known as Act 167), MS4 Program, Chapter 102 (Erosion and Sediment Control Requirements), and NPDES Permit Program for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activities are amongst the Commonwealth’s methods for meeting the runoff-related requirements of the Clean Water Act.

For all practical purposes, though, implementation of stormwater management efforts in Pennsylvania occurs at the community level because individual municipalities are ultimately responsible for adopting zoning ordinances, subdivision and land development regulations, and other programs that keep their locality’s runoff under control.

Contrary to the common perception, properly planning for stormwater can accomplish this goal while speeding the permitting process, saving on construction costs, and resulting in profitable projects that enhance a community in multiple ways.

The stormwater requirements of the federal Clean Water Act are administered under the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection’s Municipal Separate Storm Sewer (MS4) Program. In December 2002, DEP issued a General Permit (“PAG-13”) for use by MS4s that fall under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Phase II program, requiring the implementation of a stormwater management program for minimizing the impacts from runoff. Several extensions have occurred since the expiry of the initial 5 year permit period, the latest of which extended the permit expiration date to midnight on June 11, 2013.

After much debate and extensive delays, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection released its new permit requirements in late 2011, so all MS4s are working to understand how they are affected and prepare their applications before they are due. For more information, follow MS4 in the Blog.

Under the MS4 Program, permittees are required to incorporate the following six elements (known as minimum control measures, or MCMs) into their stormwater management programs:

Public education and outreach
Public involvement and participation
Illicit discharge detection and elimination
Construction site runoff control
Post-construction stormwater management in new development and redevelopment
Pollution prevention and good housekeeping for municipal operations and maintenance

Each MCM has a series of suggested best management practices (BMPs) associated with it to guide permit holders in program development, tracking, and reporting.

Pennsylvania has close to 1,000 jurisdictions that are considered small municipal seperate stormwater systems (MS4s) and therefore require Phase II permits. To download DEP's list of MS4s, click on the following link:

Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4s) within Urbanized Areas in Pennsylvania



PUBLIC MEETING held on JANUARY 10, 2018 at 7:00 P.M.

The Boroughs of Forest City and Vandling held a joint public meeting on January 10, 2018 at 7:00 PM at the Forest City Area Emergency Services building at 380 Railroad Street, Forest City, PA.  The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the ongoing stormwater management plan as required by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection NPDES Permit # PSI 132240 for Forest City  and Vandling’s NPDES Permit # PSSI 132241 and for the Boroughs’ Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems (MS4). The public was invited and encouraged to attend and participate in discussions and provide feedback and input. The following MS4 related activities were discussed:

  1. Overview of the MS4 program.
  2. Review of the Minimum Control Measures and associated Best Management Practices.
  3. Discuss updating the municipal website to include additional MS4 information.
  4. Discuss Illicit Discharge, Detection and Elimination.
  5. Discuss mapping requirements.   


The Borough's regular monthly meeting held on 12/3/2018 hosted guest speaker KBA representative, Dave Lamereaux.  Mr. Lamereaux and his associate offered a brief presentation on the MS4 permit and some of the efforts required to satisfy MS4 Permit public education requirements. He provided numerous handouts to the borough officials and the public in attendance. Handouts included the 2018 Requirements for the Borough, Winter tips with information about the impact of runoff from melting snow and ice flows. He shared information about the volunteer opportunities with the LRCA (Lackawanna River Corridor Association). information about the PennState Extension for "Master Watershed Steward" program and the application.


 Homeowners Guide to Stormwater BMP Maintenance 

SW_Booklet_2017 (pdf)


Ordinance #511_2018 StormWater mangmt (pdf)






  Minimum Control Measure (MCM) #1 of the MS4 permit deals with Public Education and Outreach on Stormwater Impacts. There are four Best Management Practices (BMPs) within MCM #1.

The following is a selection of resources for those seeking more information on MCM 1-related MS4 permit requirements. 

Links to resources outside of DEP's website do not necessarily constitute an endorsement.


ñ Let’s Be Stormwater Smart, PA: Brief video for Pennsylvanians on the problems caused by stormwater pollution and steps they can take to reduce it. Download(right click and choose "save as") and embed or link to it to share on your social media pages and websites.


ñ Storm Drain Stenciling Liability Waiver (DOC), Flyer (DOC), Press Release (DOC), and Resources (PDF)
Documents may be used by MS4s for storm drain stenciling projects. 

ñ MS4 Activity Book (PDF)
An activity booklet designed to teach children about water resources and stormwater pollution. Created by the "MS4 Partners" (College, Ferguson, Harris and Patton Townships; State College Borough; and Penn State).